“We seek no narrow nationalism. Nationalism has a place in each country and should be fostered, but it must not be allowed to become aggressive and come in the way of international development. Asia stretches her hand out in friendship to Europe and America as well as to our suffering brethren in Africa. We must help them to take their rightful place in the human family. The freedom that we envisage is not to be confined to this nation or that or to a particular people, but must spread out over the whole human race. That universal human freedom cannot also be based in the supremacy of any particular class. It must be the freedom of the common man everywhere and full of opportunities for him to develop.” –  Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s First Prime Minister (1947)

The passbook was introduced in Kenya after the First World War. To Africans, it allowed regulated passage through the country. In 1952, it became rooted as a method of screening that restricted access to key areas like Nairobi.

The “Mau Mau” have not always been known by that name. When it began to increase its membership in 1948, the movement was known as the Kenya Land and Freedom Army (KLFA).  It organised itself with paid membership and a hierarchical system that stood even while the movement fought from the forests, reserves and cities.